There are several differences which is found between plant and animal cells. However, one of the significant difference between plant and animal cell is that plants are found autotrophic, and animals heterotrophic based on food production. Autotrophic means independent (auto = self) which indicates that these living organism does not needs to depend on any other organism for their food substance, they can produce by their own. On the other hand heterotrophic means dependent organisms who needs to take food from other organisms like plant cells. Below are the further detailed explanation which describes the major differences between plant and animal cells: -
1. Food Source: Plant cells can produce their own food in the presence of sunlight by using a specific organelle (cell's part) known as chloroplast under a unique process photosynthesis. Moreover, animal cells can't produce their own food as they don't contain any chloroplast and are not able to perform photosynthesis.
2. Food Storage Organelle: Not only plant cells can prepare their own food via photosynthesis but they can store it as well in a specific area of the cell known as vacuole. Plant cells contain a very large vacuole for food and other cell substances storage whereas animal cells contains smaller vacuoles which plays lesser role in storage function.
3. Shape of the cells: Another major difference between animal and plant cells are found in their cell shape. Animal cells are found spherical in shape and plant cells are found generally rectangular shaped.
4. Cell Covering: The outer lining of any cells are known as cell covering or cell membrane, which covers the inner content of the cells and provide them protection. Cell membrane is reported in both plant and animal cells but there is any extra protection layer exists outside the cell membrane in plant cells which is known as cell wall. These are not found in the animal cells.