On Monday 5th of October 2020, the Nobel committee at Karolinska Institutet is going to be calling one or several scientists to tell them that they have been awarded the medicine Prize. In the year 2019, William G. Kaelin, Peter J. Ratcliffe, and Gregg L. Semenza conjointly won the respect for their “Discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability”. This year, i.e. 2020 the expectations are high.
Here, are some prospective candidates for the Nobel Prize-2020 in Physiology or Medicine.
Adrain P Bird, Howard Cedar, and Aharon Razin
All three are familiar with their discoveries of how genes are turned ON and OFF by modifying DNA. Not all the genes in our genome are used by every cell of our body. Each cell gets its special properties from the genes that it expresses, however, we weren't aware of how these genes were turned ON and OFF until the discoveries of Bird, Cedar, and Razin in the 1970s. Bird discovered DNA methylation, a natural modification that turns off genes. Issues with methylation may lead to disease. These original findings were the idea of the field of "Epigenetics".
Ronald M. Evans
He is best renowned for his work in the physiology and the molecular genetics of muscle performance, metabolic disease, inflammation, and cancer, and for using this information to plot small-molecule therapy. In 2004, he shared the Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award with Pierre Chambon and Elwood Jensen for the invention of the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors, and for the interpretation of the combining mechanism that regulates embryonic development and diverse metabolic pathways. he has conjointly received different awards including the Wolf Prize in medicine-2012, the Albany medical center Prize (shared with Solomon Snyder and Robert Lefkowitz)- 2012, the Harvey Prize-2006, and also the Gairdner Foundation International Award-2006, among various different awards. Other research of Ronald M. Evans pivots on a new hormone that appears to be the molecular trip controlling the emergence of fat cells. Identifying this trigger represents one of the latest and most vital advances in understanding issues arising from obesity and the potential treatment of adult-onset type II diabetes.
Dennis J. Slamon
He is best known for discovering a breast cancer gene called HER2/neu and the treatment to reverse its tumor-growing effects. Cancer is caused by mutations in a large number of genes, many of which work along to offer a cancer cell the characteristics that create it form tumors and spread. One of the genes concerned in some breast cancers was discovered by Dennis Slamon. The gene, referred to as HER2/neu, is expressed at higher levels in 20-30% of breast cancers. The protein made by the gene produces hormone receptors on the surface of the cancer cells, which makes the cells, divide quicker than normal, which ends in a tumor. Because of the invention of the gene, the drug Herceptin was created to counter the consequences of elevated HER2/neu. It blocks the receptor, stopping the "Growth" signal from stepping into the cell, and speeding down tumor growth.
Chambon made crucial contributions to the contrivance of the nuclear receptors superfamily and to the interpretation of their mechanism of action that connects physiology, transcription, and pathology. These discoveries revolutionized the fields of development, endocrinology, and metabolism, furthermore as their disorders, pointing to new techniques for drug discovery and necessary new applications in biotechnology and modern medicine. Chambon has been ranked fourth among the foremost outstanding life scientists during the 1983--2002 period. Some of his awards comprise the Gairdner Foundation International Award-2010 for the interpretation of fundamental mechanisms of transcription in animal cells and also the discovery of the nuclear receptor superfamily, the Lasker Basic Medical Research Award-2004, and the March of Dimes Prize in Developmental Biology-2003.
Daniel J. Klionsky, Noboru Mizushima, and Yoshinori Ohsumi
All three of them are known for describing how cells break down and reabsorb their worn-out machinery. Malfunctions during this process will result in disease. Autophagy literally translates to "self-eating" and that's specifically what cells do when they are either starving or their elements get drained. They take the basic building blocks of those components — proteins, carbohydrates, and fats and break them all the way down to their basic elements to be reused again. In 1992 Ohsumi was the first to observe how these cell elements were brought into the cell's garbage dump, the lysosome. Since then all of those labs have been operating to spot the proteins that are concerned in this process. A cell is a busy place, thus understanding how it keeps track of those processes can result in higher treatment for disease when they go wrong. Autophagy seems to play a task in cancer and diseases like Alzheimer's disease, which involves the buildup of a toxic protein.
Not solely the biologists mentioned above, all the scientists have made great contributions to the sphere of Science, however, who do you think can win the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine? Drop your views below.