An organoid is a miniaturized and simplified version of an organ produced in vitro in three dimensions that mimics the key functional, structural and biological complexity of that organ. They are derived from one or a few cells from a tissue, embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells, which can self-organize in three-dimensional culture owing to their self-renewal and differentiation capacities. The technique for growing organoids has rapidly improved since the early 2010s, and The Scientist names it as one of the biggest scientific advancements of 2013. Scientists and engineers use organoids to study development and diseases in the laboratory and industry for drug discovery and development, personalized diagnostics and medicine, gene and cell therapies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

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